MEDICAL RISK RATINGS
The medical risk ratings are based on a range of health risks and mitigating factors, including but not limited to: infectious disease including COVID-19 impact on accessing and provisioning healthcare, environmental factors linked to climate change, security risk rating, medical evacuation data, standard of emergency medical services, outpatient and inpatient medical care, access to pharmaceutical supplies, and cultural, language or administrative barriers.
An overall single rating is given for a location; however the medical landscape can vary widely. For example, major cities may have better access to quality medical care; whereas remote or rural locations may have limited availability of health facilities and specialist care.
LOW MEDICAL RISK
Quality medical care is available throughout the country. Specialist care, emergency and dental services, and quality prescription drugs are widely available. Low risk of infectious diseases.
MEDIUM MEDICAL RISK
Quality medical care is available from selected providers. Reliable emergency services, limited specialist and dental care are usually available. Some risk of food or water-borne diseases. Potentially life-threatening infectious diseases such as malaria and typhoid may be present.
VARIABLE MEDICAL RISK
Significant variation of travel medical risk: Quality medical care, emergency services, and dental care is available from selected providers in major cities, including prescription drugs. Elsewhere: availability of these services may be limited. Similarly, exposure to food, water-borne or potentially life-threatening infectious diseases may vary.
HIGH MEDICAL RISK
Basic emergency services, medical and dental care may be available. Specialist care is limited even in major cities. A wide range of quality prescription drugs may not be available. Food and water-borne infections are common. Potentially life- threatening infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid and cholera may persistently pose a threat.
VERY HIGH MEDICAL RISK
Healthcare is almost non-existent or severely overtaxed. There may be very limited or no primary care, emergency care or dental services. Quality prescription drugs are frequently unavailable. Food and water-borne infections are common. Potentially life-threatening infectious diseases such as malaria and cholera may be persistently present and large outbreaks may occur.
SECURITY RISK RATING DEFINITIONS
The security risk rating evaluates the threat posed to employees by political violence (including terrorism, insurgency, politically motivated unrest and war), social unrest (including sectarian, communal and ethnic violence) as well as violent and petty crime. Other factors, such as the robustness of the transport infrastructure, the state of industrial relations, the effectiveness of the security and emergency services and the country’s susceptibility to natural disasters are also considered where they are of sufficient magnitude to impact the overall risk environment for employees.
INSIGNIFICANT SECURITY RISK
Rates of violent crime are very low. There is no significant political violence or civil unrest and little sectarian, communal, racial or targeted violence against foreigners. Security and emergency services are effective and infrastructure is sound. Transport services are of a high standard with good safety records and only occasional travel disruption. Industrial action affecting essential services is rare.
LOW SECURITY RISK
Violent crime rates are low and racial, sectarian or political violence or civil unrest is uncommon. If terrorism is a threat, groups have limited operational capabilities, and acts of terrorism are rare. Security and emergency services are effective and infrastructure is sound. Industrial action and transport disruption are infrequent.
MEDIUM SECURITY RISK
Periodic political unrest, violent protests, insurgency and/or sporadic acts of terrorism occur. Travellers and international assignees may face risk from communal, sectarian or racial violence and violent crime. Capacity of security and emergency services and infrastructure varies. Industrial action can disrupt travel.
HIGH SECURITY RISK
Protests are frequently violent and may target or disrupt foreigners; they may be exacerbated by governance issues, including security or law and order capacity. Violent crime and terrorism pose significant direct or incidental risks to travellers and international assignees. Communal, sectarian or racial violence is common and foreigners may be directly targeted. Certain parts of the country are inaccessible or off-limits to the traveller.
EXTREME SECURITY RISK
Government control and law and order may be minimal or non-existent across large areas. Serious threat of violent attacks by armed groups targeting travellers and international assignees. Government and transport services are barely functional. Large parts of the country are inaccessible to foreigners.
Security Risk Zones are areas within a country where the risks faced by employees are different from the country’s overall risk environment, usually necessitating a different level of preparation.
- An overall single scale is given for a country. However, it should be noted that the impact of COVID-19 may vary widely between locations within each country. For example, between states, counties, and cities.