Harvard University


Risk Ratings  

    HIGH TRAVEL RISK for The North Caucasus republics of Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachaevo-Cherkessia

COVID-19 Impact

COVID-19 virus imageCOVID-19 Impact Rating (Travel): High -

Inbound travel significantly restricted for most travellers.

Only citizens and those who meet certain criteria for exemption  may enter. Mandatory testing and quarantine in designated facilities may apply.

COVID-19 virus imageCOVID-19 Impact Rating (Domestic Operations): High -

Essential businesses operational but with significant disruption.

Healthcare systems under pressure, even in LOW and MEDIUM Medical risk-rated countries, likely delaying access to non-life threatening but urgent care. Existing security concerns may be increasingly exacerbated by the socio-economic pressures of COVID-19 on the systems and/or diversion of resources. Further reduced avenues of recourse for in-country medical/security issues especially in HIGH/EXTREME rated security environments, with knock-on impacts on operational sustainability.  Highly disruptive BCP mitigation actions in effect, such as temporary suspension of all but essential activities. 

• Are there any border restrictions? Yes
• Are there any entry restrictions? Yes
• Are there any testing requirements? Yes
• Are there any quarantine requirements? No
• Are there any vaccine requirements? Yes
• Are there any separate transit restrictions? No
• Is COVID-19-related documentation required? No
• Are there separate restrictions for overseas territories? No
• Are there any other restrictions? No
(until further notice)
Border restrictions
All of the country's land borders remain closed until further notice.
(Until further notice)
Entry rules
- All travellers coming from India: in addition to providing a negative PCR test certificate before arrival, they also have to undergo a rapid COVID-19 test at the airport and another PCR test later on. Russian authorities have not yet specified the exact time frame suitable for taking the third test.

• Inbound travel for local nationals / residents
Citizens are allowed entry.

• Inbound travel for “third country” nationals
- An entry ban for foreign nationals is in place, with some exceptions.
- The following travellers are allowed entry:
1. Citizens and permanent residents of the countries with which direct flights with Russia have resumed can utilise existing visas and apply for new ones. Only citizens and residents of the countries where direct flights have resumed can obtain a visa prior to arrival in Russia. Tourists travelling into one of these countries to receive a visa will not be accepted. Consular services for foreign nationals in these countries have also resumed. These countries are: Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Croatia, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Luxemburg, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Portugal, Qatar, Serbia, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Syria, Venezuela, Vietnam, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the UK and Uzbekistan. If flights are suspended from the aforementioned countries, residents and citizens of that country can travel to Russia via another permitted country, where fights are available. Charter flights are resuming with Albania.
2. Diplomatic and other official governmental staff members and their immediate family members, international truck drivers, airplane crew members, travellers with private visas issued by the Russian Foreign Ministry due to special circumstances (such as the death of a close relative), foreign nationals holding a permanent residency permit or another document allowing them to reside in Russia, family members of Russian citizens, certain groups of citizens from countries with which Russia has a visa waiver agreement, specialists who conduct maintenance on imported equipment, highly qualified foreign national specialists with existing work permits, CIS citizens, citizens residing in the secessionist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and transit passengers. Foreign nationals are also allowed to enter Russia to seek medical treatment or to provide nursing care to sick close relatives (if they have a history of frequently travelling into Russia for the same reason). Foreign sportsmen, sports officials and their close family members are also allowed entry.

• Exemptions
Travellers may consult this website for list of exemptions: https://www.aeroflot.ru/ru-en/covid-19#
(Until further notice)
Testing requirements

• Who needs to test + Type of test and timeframe?
- Upon arrival, foreign travellers must provide a negative COVID-19 PCR test certificate for a test taken no more than 72 hours before arrival. It can be either digital or in hard copy. The PCR test should be in English or Russian. Certificates in any other language must be translated into Russian and validated at a Russian diplomatic mission.
- Russian citizens who arrive without a test result certificate via regular commercial flights are required to undergo two COVID-19 test within 5 days of arriving, and submit the results of the laboratory test through the Unified Public Services Portal by completing the form "Providing information on the results of the test for the new coronavirus infection for those arriving in the Russian Federation". The interval between the first and second laboratory test for COVID-19 by PCR must be at least one day. Consult this website for information on procedure: https://www.gosuslugi.ru/400705/1
- Russian citizens must register on the GosUslugi official portal (www.gosuslugi.ru) prior to undertaking a flight. They must upload their PCR test results to the same portal within three days of arrival. Those who do not comply with these measures will face fines.
- Those who undergo COVID-19 testing after arriving must do so at their own expense and must isolate until the test result is returned. Those who test negative are no longer required to quarantine. Anyone tested positive for COVID is required to quarantine for an unspecified period of time at their place of residence.
- Citizens of the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU – Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan) who enter the Russian Federation from Armenia, Belarus or Kyrgyzstan via airport checkpoints of the Russian Federation shall provide a negative COVID-19 test result (PCR test) using the COVID-19 Free Travel mobile app.
• What information is required in the test result?
The COVID-19 certificate must contain the following information:
1. Name, date of birth.
2. Exact date and time of collection of the biological material. Please note: each country has its own requirements for the validity period of the tests.
3. It must be indicated that the test was carried out using the PCR method and that the result is negative.
4. The certificate must contain the name and seal of the issuing organisation.
(Until further notice)
Quarantine requirements

• Who must quarantine and for how long and where can this be done?
- No mandatory quarantine requirements, though local jurisdictions set their own rules regarding quarantine requirements. Check with local contacts for current requirements.
(Until further notice)
Documentation required
Foreign travellers must also complete this form: https://www.rospotrebnadzor.ru/upload/%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B0%D0%90%D0%BD%D0%BA%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B0%20RUS.docx, print, and present it to customs upon arrival in Russia.
(until further notice)
Transit passengers are also required to present a negative COVID-19 PCR test (in Russian or English) taken no more than 72 hours prior to their arrival to the airport in Russia.
(until further notice)
All travellers will be screened upon arrival.
(until further notice)
• Are there any border restrictions? Yes
• Are there any exit restrictions? Yes
• Are there any testing requirements? No
• Are there any quarantine requirements? No
• Are there any vaccine requirements? No
• Are there any separate transit restrictions? No
• Is COVID-19-related documentation required? No
• Are there separate restrictions for overseas territories? No
• Are there any other restrictions? No
(Until further notice)
Border restrictions
• Border closures/restrictions
- All land borders remain closed until further notice.
- Most international rail services are suspended.
(Until further notice)

Exit rules
• Outbound travel for local nationals / residents
Citizens are allowed to take regular direct commercial flights to the countries where these have resumed.
Russian nationals are allowed to exit the country for purposes of work, education, seeking medical treatment or to visit immediate relatives requiring special care.
Russian nationals who hold permanent residency in another country or dual citizenship are also allowed to leave the country.
Russian sportsmen and other sport officials are allowed to leave Russia for participation in competitions.
(until further notice)
Internal / DomesticSummary
• Is a state of emergency in place? No
• Are curfews/lockdowns in place? Yes, in some regions
• Can businesses operate? Yes
• Are there other restrictions on internal travel? Yes
• Are there any testing requirements? No
• Are there any vaccination requirements? No
• Are there any other restrictions in place? Yes
(Ends 20 June 2021)
Restrictions on internal travel
• What restrictions are in place
- The federal government has devolved responsibilities for local restrictions to regional authorities; as such, restrictions may differ from location to location.
- While no federal restrictions on domestic travel have been introduced, a large number of flights, train and bus services have been cancelled. Some airports might experience temporary short-notice closures (subject to the scheduled flights).
- Some regional authorities require all passengers travelling from Moscow and St Petersburg to undergo a 14-day quarantine in a medical facility.
- The Republic of Chechnya has restricted entry through its land borders; minimal exceptions apply and only certain categories of travellers are likely to be permitted. Besides, a curfew is implemented from 20.00 to 08.00 in the Republic of Chechnya.
- Moscow to require restaurants, bars and gathering spaces to close between 23.00 and 06.00 from 13 June to 27 June

All entertainment events in public catering facilities are banned. Only food courts and food places located at train stations, airports, gas stations will be allowed to operate. Restaurants are banned from working between 02.00-06.00 except for takeaway services, hotel, and home food delivery businesses. Indoor and outdoor entertainment venues are permitted to work with a maximum of 1,000 people.
(Ends 20 June 2021)

Other social distancing measures
• General
- Is mask wearing mandatory?
A nationwide mask mandate is in place indefinitely.

• Other
- Validity of visas, temporary residence permits, residence permits, migration cards, refugee certificates, certificates of consideration of an application for recognition as a refugee , certificates of temporary asylum and certificates of a participant in the State Program for the Resettlement of Compatriots have been automatically extended until 15 June 2021.
- Check the Moscow mayor's website for latest city-level restrictions: https://www.sobyanin.ru/blog
- Travellers may consult this website for internal travel regulations in different regions: https://www.rospotrebnadzor.ru/region/structure/str_uprav.phphttps://www.rospotrebnadzor.ru/region/structure/str_uprav.phphttps://www.rospotrebnadzor.ru/region/structure/str_uprav.php
(Until further notice)
The authorities have approved legislation imposing severe punishment — including up to five years in prison — for people convicted of spreading false information about the coronavirus. The legislation also imposes punishments for people breaking quarantine rules, including up to seven years in prison.
(Until further notice)
Planned changes and internal conditionsFlights to and from Iceland, Malta, Mexico, Portugal and Saudi Arabia are expected to resume, although it is yet known when the exact implementation will be carried out. Following the mutual commercial flights resumption, the diplomatic missions are likely to resume consular visa services.
(Until further notice)
Summary - Changes to the following measures:
• Border restrictions? Yes
• Entry restrictions? No
• Testing requirements? No
• Quarantine requirements? No
• Vaccination requirements? No
• Transit restrictions? No
• COVID-19-related documentation required? No
• Restrictions for overseas territories? No
• Internal restrictions? Yes
• Outbound restrictions? No
• Other restrictions? No
(Until further notice)

19 Jun 2021 (Updated Daily)

Risk Summary


Please see our:

Medical and Security Alerts for Russia

COVID-19 information for Russia

Dedicated COVID-19 website


The travel security risks differ from region to region given the country's large size. Outside the North Caucasus region, crime, deficiencies in infrastructure such as roads and the unreliability of the police force and other government emergency services are the principal risks to foreign personnel. Incidents of petty and opportunistic crime are common and violent crime does occur. Racially motivated attacks are a serious concern, particularly in the capital Moscow and St Petersburg. Although these are predominantly directed against migrants from Central Asia and the Caucasus region, people of African, Asian or Middle Eastern appearance are also targeted.

The risk of terrorism outside the North Caucasus region is most credible in Moscow, which has been targeted several times in the past. Although foreigners have not been directly targeted in terrorist attacks, the choice of targets, notably public infrastructure, means that personnel face significant incidental risks.

The risk of social unrest is low. While politically motivated demonstrations are relatively common, especially in the main population centres of Moscow and St Petersburg, the security implications for personnel are low. Localised confrontations between opposition activists and the police occur regularly during unauthorised demonstrations, but this is unlikely to pose any significant risks to foreign nationals.

The security risks are considerably higher in the North Caucasus republics of Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachaevo-Cherkessia and North Ossetia. Business travel and business operations in this region remain problematic because of the ongoing Islamist-inspired insurgency and terrorism campaign, the continuing conflict between the security forces and Islamist militants, poor infrastructure, weak rule of law, a high risk of kidnap and limited security/logistical support.

This information is intended as a summary of the travel security environment. However, the risks can change at short notice during a crisis or evolving situation. Please check our travel security alerts to ensure you are informed of the most recent developments.


Vaccinations For Russia
Hepatitis ARecommended for all travellers and expatriates,
Read more
Hepatitis BRecommended for most travellers and expatriates,
Read more
Japanese encephalitisVaccination is recommended for travel to far
Read more
Tickborne encephalitisMay be recommended for those visiting forests,
Read more
Routine Vaccinations

Disclaimer  Privacy

Travel security advice provided in this report represents the best judgment of AEA International Holdings Pte. Ltd. Medical and health advice provided in this report represents the best judgment of AEA International Holdings Pte. Ltd. Advice in this report does not however provide a warranty of future results nor a guarantee against risk.

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