Harvard University

South Sudan

Risk Ratings  

    EXTREME MEDICAL RISK for South Sudan
    EXTREME TRAVEL RISK for South Sudan

COVID-19 Impact

COVID-19 virus imageCOVID-19 Impact Rating (Travel): Medium -

Inbound travel is possible, but with notable inconvenience; restrictions affect a wide range of travellers.

Restrictions in place for a wide range of originating countries / nationalities arriving in country. Mandatory testing and quarantine in designated facilities may apply.

COVID-19 virus imageCOVID-19 Impact Rating (Domestic Operations): Medium -

COVID-related impacts posing routine challenges to business operations.

The medical, logistics and security environments are impacted by the pressures of COVID-19. Pre-existing security risks increasingly likely to be exacerbated by COVID-19-related political and socio-economic concerns and associated pressures in the near/medium term. There may be delay in accessing urgent care due to pressures on the medical system. Core protective  elements of BCP likely to be implemented: non-essential staff  working from home, staff tracing in place, reinforced hygiene and segregation practices with robust escalation and de-escalation triggers as well as mitigation measures.

• Are there any border restrictions? No
• Are there any entry restrictions? No
• Are there any testing requirements? Yes
• Are there any quarantine requirements? Yes
• Are there any vaccine requirements? No
• Are there any separate transit restrictions? No
• Is COVID-19-related documentation required? Yes
• Are there separate restrictions for overseas territories? No
• Are there any other restrictions? No
(Until further notice)
Testing requirements

• Who needs to test + Type of test and timeframe?
Incoming travellers must present a negative PCR test result taken within the 96 hours before arriving in South Sudan.
(Until further notice)
Quarantine requirements

• Who must quarantine and for how long and where can this be done?
Incoming travelers with valid negative PCR test certificate are not required to quarantine.
(Until further notice)
- Upon arrival to Juba International Airport (JUB), the traveller must give the authorities a local contact phone number to make follow-up calls to check for any emerging symptoms.
- An entry permit, pre-approved by the national deputy president, is now required due to COVID-19 along with the issuance of a one-month visa (obtained upon arrival and costing roughly 100 USD). Passengers may obtain a pre-arranged visa from either the South Sudan Embassy/Consular in the country of departure or apply for an e-visa - https://www.onlinevisa.com/south-sudan-visa/. Passengers who hold a special approval letter for visa on arrival will need to obtain OKTB from Juba station prior to departure.

(Until further notice)
• Are there any border restrictions? No
• Are there any exit restrictions? No
• Are there any testing requirements? No
• Are there any quarantine requirements? No
• Are there any vaccine requirements? No
• Are there any separate transit restrictions? No
• Is COVID-19-related documentation required? No
• Are there separate restrictions for overseas territories? No
• Are there any other restrictions? No
(Until further notice)
Border restrictions
While land borders have officially reopened, they are essentially still shut due to restrictions in neighboring countries. Exceptions will be made for emergency services, food deliveries, humanitarian aid providers and fuel tankers.
(until further notice)
Internal / DomesticSummary
• Is a state of emergency in place? No
• Are curfews/lockdowns in place? No
• Can businesses operate? Yes
• Are there other restrictions on internal travel? No
• Are there any testing requirements? No
• Are there any vaccination requirements? No
• Are there any other restrictions in place? Yes
(Until further notice)
Other social distancing measures

The mandatory wearing of face masks and social distancing remains in place.
(Until further notice)

23 Jun 2021 (Updated Daily)

Risk Summary


Please see our:

Medical and Security Alerts for South Sudan

COVID-19 information for South Sudan

Dedicated COVID-19 website


The overall risk to travellers in South Sudan is EXTREME, which predominantly refers to areas outside the capital Juba. The city's current travel risk rating remains HIGH, informed by the comparatively more secure security environment, relative to the rest of the country.

Despite formidable obstacles, gradual progress in the political sphere has been observed, illustrated by the September 2018 attempt between opposing groups to forge a peace agreement (the Revitalised Agreement for the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan – R-ARCSS). This in February 2020 resulted in the formation of a unity government led by long-time adversaries President Salva Kiir and his former, and now present, vice-president, Riek Machar. Nevertheless, prospects for a lasting, comprehensive peace and overarching stability remain uncertain. Mistrust and tensions between both men persist over resource allocation, local governance representation and how to integrate their respective fighting forces into a unified national army. This means that the peace process is far from fully resolved.

Correspondingly, the general security situation, while showing marginal indications of improvement in certain areas of the country – including the capital, Juba – fails to demonstrate any outright improvement due to the continuation of ethnically-charged violence and cyclical clashes connected to land and resource disputes that have resulted in a high number of casualties. Initial disagreements over the appointment of local governors between Kiir and Machar led to power vacuums across the country which allegedly facilitated an escalation in clashes between rival communal groups. Beyond ethnic drivers for the civil war, the interplay between political and elite rivals to gain access to and safeguard wealth and power remains a key challenge in the attainment of a true and comprehensive peace. The unity government has now allocated the majority of governorships and administrative posts to various stakeholders in order to placate the groups signatory to the peace accord. Nevertheless, the ability of the governors to oversee stability is anticipated to be wanting and violence is set to continue.

Moreover, despite the fragile preservation of a ceasefire as part of the R-ARCSS peace deal, clashes between signatories to the R-ARCSS agreement and non-signatory rebel groups, such as the National Salvation Front (NAS), continue. Government efforts to mount a disarmament campaign have resulted in clashes with local communities and militias that are distrustful of the government and unwilling to surrender their arms.

The R-ARCSS agreement has been negotiated in a forced ‘top-down' manner and fundamentally forges a compromise between two prominent figures not inclusive of more marginal groups. It does not include confidence and peace-building initiatives to bring reconciliation between state and sub-state level communities that were embroiled in the civil war conflicts; moreover, this approach has not translated into a comprehensive peace as developments on the ground demonstrate that conflict between communal groups on the one hand and non-signatories to the agreement and the government continue to arise. During the initial outbreak of civil conflict in December 2013, the theatre of war was primarily centered in the northern states; however, pronounced clashes are now centred in the Central and Western Equatoria states. Nevertheless, localised armed confrontations between government and rebel groups and attacks on civilians continue to occur across the country. Inter-communal violence has been observed, particularly in Jonglei state and to a lesser extent in Unity and Warrap states; porous external borders coupled with the continued smuggling and proliferation of small arms and light weapons has made these communal disputes increasingly violent. The ongoing potential for the outbreak of widespread conflict and the persistence of localised conflict are the primary reasons behind the EXTREME risk rating for areas outside of Juba.

Violent crime and theft risks had worsened during the civil conflict of 2013-15, and levels remain elevated. Outside urban areas, bandits and insurgent groups often operate on main roads, making overland travel hazardous. Ambushes on remote sections of road occur as well. In addition to fighting between government and rebel forces, other tribal/factional clashes and communal/pastoral violence all pose credible incidental threats to travellers in rural areas. Ethnic tensions regularly involve severe incidences of violence.

There are few paved roads in South Sudan, and roads outside major towns are often in poor condition. Seasonal rains can make rural areas difficult – or impossible – to access and driving hazardous. Airstrips can also be closed for days at a time due to heavy rains and waterlogged landing strips between April and November each year. South Sudan is also susceptible to chronic flooding caused by torrential rains making some areas only accessible by helicopter. There is also a risk from landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) across former conflict sites (particularly, but not excluded to, the states of Jonglei, Unity and Upper Nile).

This information is intended as a summary of the travel security environment; however, the risks can change at short notice during a crisis or evolving situation. Please check our travel security alerts to ensure you are informed of the most recent developments.


Vaccinations For South Sudan
CholeraOral vaccination is recommended for travellers
Read more
Hepatitis ARecommended for all travellers and expatriates,
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Hepatitis BRecommended for all travellers and expatriates.
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Meningitis - meningococcalVaccination with the quadrivalent vaccine
Read more
PolioAll travellers are recommended to be fully
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RabiesConsider for certain travellers, especially: For
Read more
Typhoid feverRecommended for all travellers and expatriates.
Read more
Yellow feverSouth Sudan is a country with a risk of yellow
Read more
Routine Vaccinations

Disclaimer  Privacy

Travel security advice provided in this report represents the best judgment of AEA International Holdings Pte. Ltd. Medical and health advice provided in this report represents the best judgment of AEA International Holdings Pte. Ltd. Advice in this report does not however provide a warranty of future results nor a guarantee against risk.

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